# Managerial Economics

Important: Clearly show your calculation steps where applicable or no credit

Please staple your homework;

Problem 1(Derived Demand Curve for E-books) (20 points):

In 2014, an average American book reader Jackie spent about 20% of book budget on e-books (X), and

80% on print books (Y);

Assume his annual book budget was $50, the average price of e-books was $10, and the average

price of print books was $20. (Px = $10, Py = $20, I = $50)

1) Define a utility function that represents his preference for book consumption. Use

Lagrangian method to solve for the optimal consumption of e-books and print books that makes

Jackie most satisfied; Solve the first order conditions and Show your work. (4 points)

2) Derive a demand function for e-books in terms of Px, Py and budget I. (4 points)

3) Graph the budget line and indifference curves. Mark the intercepts of the budget line and

the slope, and mark the optimal solutions. (2 points)

4) Suppose the average price of e-books increased to PxA = $12, and the average price of

print books stayed same Py = $20. How many e-books and print books would Jackie have purchased in

2014 in order to maximize his satisfaction? (3 points)

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Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you a 100 % Original Paper? Click Here and Get a Professional Writer to work on this Essay……5) Plot the new budget line and show the new optimal solutions in your graph in part 5).

Compare the new solution with the previous consumption bundle in part 2), did consumer’s utility

increase or decrease when e-books price increased from $10 to $12? (3 points)

6) Graph the derived demand curve of e-books for Jackie (X-axis: X Quantity of E-Books,

Y-axis: Price of e-books Px). (4 points)

Problem 2 (Change in Consumer Surplus due to E-books Price Increase) (12 points):

1) Based on the derived demand function for e-books, calculate change in consumer surplus

(∆CS) for Jackie when average price of e-books increases from $10 to $12. (5 points) (Hint: refer

to example 5.1 in Textbook p143)

2) Show the area of change in consumer surplus in your graph in Problem 1 part 6). (2 points)

3) Assume that there are 220 million book readers in the U.S, in 2014, what is the total loss

of consumer surplus due to increase in e-books prices? (5 points)

(Note: Through this exercise, we have just estimated the loss to consumers when e-book prices are

fixed at a higher level than its competitive price. Apple has recently agreed to compensate

consumers $450 million for e-book price fixing case. For more information, see Optional Reading #5

_ Apple E-Books Price Fixing, WSJ, 6/30/2015; More background information on Apple e-books price

fixing case can be found at

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_v._Apple_Inc )

Problem 3. (Short-run production) (10 points):

Given the following total production output at various labor input level, fill out the

corresponding Average Product of Labor and Marginal Product of Labor, where

AP = q/L ; MP = ∆q / ∆L

(Note that in the short run, capital K is held constant at 10 units)

Labor (L) Capital (K) Total Production (q) Average Product (AP) Marginal Product

(MP)

0 10 0

1 10 10

2 10 30

3 10 60

4 10 80

5 10 95

6 10 108

7 10 112

8 10 112

9 10 108

10 10 100

1) Graph the total production curve, AP curve and MP curve, and identify the three stages of

production; (6 points)

2) Identify the Labor input level where MP reaches its max and AP reaches its max. Mark in

the graph. (4 points)

Problem 4. (Short-run production) (10 points):

Given the following short-run production function

q = 21L + 9L2 – L3 where L is labor hours.

1) Solve for Labor (L) input level where Marginal Product (MP) reaches maximum;

2) Solve for Labor (L) input level where Average Product (AP) reaches maximum;

3) Solve for Labor (L) input level where total production q reaches maximum;

Problem 5. (Long-run production) (8 points):

The data below show the combinations of labor and capital that produce the same level of output

for a U.S. firm producing electronics.

Labor (L) Capital (K) Output (q)

2 18 6

3 12 6

4 8 6

6 6 6

7 5 6

9 4 6

12 3 6

13 2.75 6

18 2 6

1) Graph the isoquant for q = 6;

2) Calculate the MRTSLK at (L=2, K=18), (L=3, K=12), (L=6, K=6), and (L=12, K=3)

Problem 6 (Return to Scale) (12 points):

Does the following production functions exhibit constant, increasing, or decreasing returns to

scale? Show your work.

1) q = 3L + 2K

2) q = (3L + 2K)1/2

3) q = min (3L, 2K)

4) q = 3LK2

5) q = 100 (K0.8L0.2)

6) q = 100 (K0.9L0.2)

Problem 7 (Calculate Consumer Surplus with a Linear Demand Function) (10 points):

Given the following linear demand curve for processed pork in Canada you have solved in Homework 1

Problem 3:

QD = 295 – 20P

where P is the price of processed pork ($/kg), and QD is quantity demanded in millions of kg.

1) Calculate consumer surplus at P = $5/kg; Graph the demand curve and show the area of

consumer surplus. (4 points)

2) Calculate consumer surplus at P = $4/kg; Graph the demand curve and show the area of

consumer surplus. (4 points)

3) What is the change in consumer surplus when price of pork decreases from $5/kg to $4/kg?

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Managerial Economics

Important: Clearly show your calculation steps where applicable or no credit

Please staple your homework;

Problem 1(Derived Demand Curve for E-books) (20 points):

In 2014, an average American book reader Jackie spent about 20% of book budget on e-books (X), and

80% on print books (Y);

Assume his annual book budget was $50, the average price of e-books was $10, and the average

price of print books was $20. (Px = $10, Py = $20, I = $50)

1) Define a utility function that represents his preference for book consumption. Use

Lagrangian method to solve for the optimal consumption of e-books and print books that makes

Jackie most satisfied; Solve the first order conditions and Show your work. (4 points)

2) Derive a demand function for e-books in terms of Px, Py and budget I. (4 points)

3) Graph the budget line and indifference curves. Mark the intercepts of the budget line and

the slope, and mark the optimal solutions. (2 points)

4) Suppose the average price of e-books increased to PxA = $12, and the average price of

print books stayed same Py = $20. How many e-books and print books would Jackie have purchased in

2014 in order to maximize his satisfaction? (3 points)

Click Here For Details on How to Complete this Paper……

Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you a 100 % Original Paper? Click Here and Get a Professional Writer to work on this Essay……5) Plot the new budget line and show the new optimal solutions in your graph in part 5).

Compare the new solution with the previous consumption bundle in part 2), did consumer’s utility

increase or decrease when e-books price increased from $10 to $12? (3 points)

6) Graph the derived demand curve of e-books for Jackie (X-axis: X Quantity of E-Books,

Y-axis: Price of e-books Px). (4 points)

Problem 2 (Change in Consumer Surplus due to E-books Price Increase) (12 points):

1) Based on the derived demand function for e-books, calculate change in consumer surplus

(∆CS) for Jackie when average price of e-books increases from $10 to $12. (5 points) (Hint: refer

to example 5.1 in Textbook p143)

2) Show the area of change in consumer surplus in your graph in Problem 1 part 6). (2 points)

3) Assume that there are 220 million book readers in the U.S, in 2014, what is the total loss

of consumer surplus due to increase in e-books prices? (5 points)

(Note: Through this exercise, we have just estimated the loss to consumers when e-book prices are

fixed at a higher level than its competitive price. Apple has recently agreed to compensate

consumers $450 million for e-book price fixing case. For more information, see Optional Reading #5

_ Apple E-Books Price Fixing, WSJ, 6/30/2015; More background information on Apple e-books price

fixing case can be found at

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_v._Apple_Inc )

Problem 3. (Short-run production) (10 points):

Given the following total production output at various labor input level, fill out the

corresponding Average Product of Labor and Marginal Product of Labor, where

AP = q/L ; MP = ∆q / ∆L

(Note that in the short run, capital K is held constant at 10 units)

Labor (L) Capital (K) Total Production (q) Average Product (AP) Marginal Product

(MP)

0 10 0

1 10 10

2 10 30

3 10 60

4 10 80

5 10 95

6 10 108

7 10 112

8 10 112

9 10 108

10 10 100

1) Graph the total production curve, AP curve and MP curve, and identify the three stages of

production; (6 points)

2) Identify the Labor input level where MP reaches its max and AP reaches its max. Mark in

the graph. (4 points)

Problem 4. (Short-run production) (10 points):

Given the following short-run production function

q = 21L + 9L2 – L3 where L is labor hours.

1) Solve for Labor (L) input level where Marginal Product (MP) reaches maximum;

2) Solve for Labor (L) input level where Average Product (AP) reaches maximum;

3) Solve for Labor (L) input level where total production q reaches maximum;

Problem 5. (Long-run production) (8 points):

The data below show the combinations of labor and capital that produce the same level of output

for a U.S. firm producing electronics.

Labor (L) Capital (K) Output (q)

2 18 6

3 12 6

4 8 6

6 6 6

7 5 6

9 4 6

12 3 6

13 2.75 6

18 2 6

1) Graph the isoquant for q = 6;

2) Calculate the MRTSLK at (L=2, K=18), (L=3, K=12), (L=6, K=6), and (L=12, K=3)

Problem 6 (Return to Scale) (12 points):

Does the following production functions exhibit constant, increasing, or decreasing returns to

scale? Show your work.

1) q = 3L + 2K

2) q = (3L + 2K)1/2

3) q = min (3L, 2K)

4) q = 3LK2

5) q = 100 (K0.8L0.2)

6) q = 100 (K0.9L0.2)

Problem 7 (Calculate Consumer Surplus with a Linear Demand Function) (10 points):

Given the following linear demand curve for processed pork in Canada you have solved in Homework 1

Problem 3:

QD = 295 – 20P

where P is the price of processed pork ($/kg), and QD is quantity demanded in millions of kg.

1) Calculate consumer surplus at P = $5/kg; Graph the demand curve and show the area of

consumer surplus. (4 points)

2) Calculate consumer surplus at P = $4/kg; Graph the demand curve and show the area of

consumer surplus. (4 points)

3) What is the change in consumer surplus when price of pork decreases from $5/kg to $4/kg?

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